The thousands of graphics-covered minibuses called matatus that zip through Nairobi make up one of the largest (and liveliest) informal transportation systems in the world. This unregulated—some might say renegade—transit keeps the city moving rather efficiently, and, until recently, was an all-cash business. Until Google stepped in.
Following the premature posting of information about the program, Amazon today officially announced Kindle Unlimited, a new e-book and audiobook subscription service that provides unlimited access to 600,000 Kindle titles and thousands of Audible audiobooks for $9.99 per month. Subscribers can access the content on any Kindle device or via the Kindle app on the iPad, iPhone or Mac.
The Kindle Unlimited service includes high-profile Kindle titles such as The Hobbit and the Harry Potter series as well as popular audiobooks like The Hunger Games trilogy and Life of Pi. The service includes popular Kindle features including Highlights, X-Ray and Whispersync for Voice, which allows users to switch between listening and reading a book without losing their place.
Amazon is offering Kindle Unlimited with a 30-day free trial that also includes a free three-month membership to the full Audible service with access to more than 150,000 audiobooks. After this trial period is over, subscribers must pay $9.99 per month for the Kindle Unlimited service and can opt to continue the additional Audible membership for $14.95 per month.
Recent Mac and iOS Blog Stories
• Photos of Construction Material Hint at Scale of Apple’s Spaceship Campus
• Upcoming Apple Store in Hanover, Germany Likely Opening in September
• Blizzard’s ‘Hearthstone’ Expansion ‘Curse of Naxxramas’ Launching July 22 for Mac/iOS
• Apple ID Two-Step Verification Now Available in 59 Countries
• Facebook Launches Exclusive ‘Mentions’ App for Verified Public Figures
• Apple Explores Detecting User Behavior Patterns to Enhance Device Security
• Apple May Shift Next-Generation Chip Production From TSMC to Samsung
• Apple Begins Rolling Out iTunes Pass in United States [Updated]
Late last year, MailChimp rolled out our Send Time Optimization feature. Built on the Email Genome Project, which powers many of our other products, Send Time Optimization does just what you’d think: It suggests to users when they should send their campaigns.
“So,” you might be thinking, “when is the optimal time to send?” Well, it depends on who you are and who you’re sending to: Since the Email Genome Project stores email address engagement data for billions of addresses at the individual level, these send time recommendations are personalized per user based on the subscribers on their list.
But that doesn’t mean we can’t tackle the question at a high level anyway. In this post, we’ll look at aggregate patterns from the send time optimization system and then investigate some drivers behind why different lists often have different optimal send times.
A note on how to read the graphs in this post: For this analysis we calculated the best time to send to individual addresses in their local time zones. “Best time to send” is a calculation I explain here (it’s a function both of engagement and volume). The graphs then track the percentage of email addresses out of the population that have a particular time as their optimum. For example, 1% of email addresses might have 3am as their optimum, while 6% have 9am. Across the time horizon of a graph, these percentages will sum to 100%, because everyone has some time that’s optimal. (Also, these names can get unwieldy, so for this post I’m calling them STO and EGP. Cool?)
The easy answers
For all the readers who want the high-level, easy answers about when to send, here I’ll lay out what EGP’s several billion email addresses have to say. I’ve separated time of day and day of week to make the results easier to read, but even when merged into single week graphs, the results are the same.
To start, let’s look at day of week effects. STO’s data shows us that, in general, it’s most optimal to send to most subscribers on a weekday. Sunday is the best day to send to the fewest number of subscribers, while Monday through Friday are all quite similar in terms of the percentage of email addresses that have that day as optimal.
Note that no single day wins hands-down. This is what we should expect when studying the data of billions of humans’ inbox activity.
Now, while the weekend is clearly less preferable compared to the work week, that does shift slightly depending on what type of content you send (since that affects the subscribers you have).
For example, business-related content has a less than a typical number of subscribers with weekend optimal. On the flip side, recreational content usually enjoys a healthier than typical percentage of subscribers with weekend send time optimal. Note though that in either case, these percentages are still lower than 50%, implying that no matter what content it being sent, most lists are comprised of a majority of recipients for whom the optimal send time is during the work week.
Now, let’s zoom into the hourly level.
When we look at the typical distribution of optimal send times across MailChimp’s whole system, the peak is at 10AM in the recipients’ own time zones.
Unless you have good reason, I’d avoid sending your content too early (say, 3 or 4 am) in the recipients’ time zones. If you’re on the east coast, but many of your subscribers are in California, consider using delivery by time zone on your morning newsletter to make sure you don’t send to those west coasters too early.
Note that the 10am peak is less than 7%. That means no matter what time you choose to send to a list, the majority of subscribers on your list have some other time that’s optimal for them. There’s no one time during the day when everyone (or even half of everyone) drops what they’re doing and says, “Now is the time, and this is the place, to engage with email.” That’s just not going to happen, and I love that the data bears this out.
When we break the high-level time of day curve into some content types, we see that 10am time actually fracture. For instance, content in the hobbies category in MailChimp goes to subscribers whose optimal send time peak is earlier, around 8am. Perhaps these readers check a lot of this content before they go to work.
Note that retail and hobby content have many more subscribers with optimal send times after business hours (not enough to shift the peak from the morning, though).
Not content, but audience
We’ve got our easy answers out of the way (send during the work week in midmorning), and we’ve seen how these answers shift a bit in terms of weekend preference and evening preference based on content type. These content-type dependencies are the first indication that our monolithic answers are disguising more nuanced truths deeper in the data.
When you think about it, is the type of content you’re receiving the main driver of when you open and read it? For me, that’s not true. I’ll read retail stuff at work (sorry, boss!), and I’ll read data science content while I’m at home on the couch (sorry, lovely wife!).
The primary driver of when I engage with email (donning my Captain Obvious hat right now) is my life. A lot of the analysis and anecdotal evidence around send time stops at business type, but in order to understand when to send to your audience, you need to understand your audience, not your content. Who are these folks? What stage of life are they in? When do they have a free moment to scroll through promotional material on their phone?
To illustrate a quick point, let’s take a look at how the distribution of optimal send times for Republicans differs from that of Democrats.
There’s no statistically significant difference whatsoever. Why is that? Because political affiliation at a high level has little to do with what drives a person’s schedule and their ability to check email. Large amounts of data don’t have to overturn common sense hypotheses. Common sense would tell us that political affiliation is too broad and tangential a category with respect to send time optimization.
So let’s think a moment about what factors would have an effect on when people are available and ready to engage with email.
How about the location and culture in which they live? After all, people in different countries have different schedules. Let’s look at send time optimization split out into a few countries:
A much larger percentage of folks in Spain engage with email in the 10 and 11am hours, while Norway—which currently has a very long summer day—plateaus out with plenty of folks having optimal send times well after business hours. Egypt, on the other hand, has a much higher percentage of recipients whose optimal send time is in the predawn hours.
So location matters. What about age?
College-aged recipients have an optimal send time distribution that is shifted to the right with a peak at 1pm instead of the typical 10am. Given the sleep patterns of college students, especially in the summer months, this comes as no surprise.
So age is certainly a step in the right direction. But why don’t 30 year olds sleep til noon like college kids do? In my case, it’s because my kids would never let me, but for the most part, people have to go to work!
What about occupation, then?
When we look at occupation, we see some of the largest differences. In the graph below, I’ve pulled optimal send time distributions for recipients who are lawyers, bartenders, and neonatal nurses.
Bartenders, like college students, get a later start on the day, and their whole distribution shifts right, giving them a peak at around 1pm. Lawyers, on the other hand, have a highly condensed distribution, with two peaks: first thing in the workday at 9am, and then again after lunch. Very few lawyers have optimal send times that are outside of work hours.
As for neonatal nursers, their workdays are all over the place and so their distribution gets widened and is less peaky. Indeed, many of these nurses have optimal send times well past 8pm.
So what if I’m not sending to Norwegian bartenders?
The graphs above illustrate the nuance in determining the optimal time to send to a list. There may be one high-level easy answer, but it falls apart a bit for certain audiences. Luckily, MailChimp’s STO system captures all that nuance, so feel free to try out its suggestion for your list.
Furthermore, none of these above results are surprising. The fact that bartenders don’t want to engage with email at 8am is pretty obvious, if you think about it. And that’s a good thing! It means that STO, while backed by insane amounts of data and math, isn’t magic. You can formulate your own hypotheses based on what you know about your audience and then A/B test those send time hypotheses. (Remember, A/B tests on send time average a 22% improvement in engagement.)
So I hope this post helps put the age old “When do I send?” question to bed. Just remember:
- Send midmorning during the work week…
- …unless you know something about your audience, which you really should. In which case, the previous point is probably wrong.
- Use STO or A/B testing to get a better answer.
Audiobooks are great because they mean you can enjoy a book while doing something else — or just because it’s always nice to have a book read to you! With Siri on the iPad offering voice control and dictation, you might think you can “convert” your books into audio books by enlisting the help of Apple’s virtual assistant, but sadly, it can’t help. While Siri can speak out individual passages from iBooks, you can’t just sit back and let it read out the whole thing.
However, all is not lost. There is a great app available called Natural Reader that reads out the text from all kinds of documents, including Word files, PDF documents, and ePub digital books — you can even use it with web pages. This means work documents or reference material can be read out loud while you work on projects or reports. It’s also great if you’re studying and need to take in lots of information. Think of Natural Reader as turning long-form online writing into a kind of podcast to listen to at your leisure.
We’ll show you how easy it is to set up Natural Reader so it can then read out your stored iPad documents, as well as online text, whenever you like.
1. Import a Book
Once you’ve downloaded Natural Reader onto your iPad (www.naturalreaders.com), you need to put text into the app. This can be a digital book (such as epub, the format used by most digital books), text document, Microsoft Word, or PDF file. Perhaps the easiest way to add files is through Dropbox (www.dropbox.com); upload the files using your Mac, then tap on the Dropbox icon in Natural Reader to retrieve them. Alternatively, you can connect your iPad to a Mac and copy the ebook using iTunes.
2. Open the Book
When you open the book in Natural Reader, it appears in the main window. (It’s also copied and stored locally in the Natural Reader app.) Tap the next-page button at the bottom to move to the page where you want to start listening, then press the play button in the bottom-left corner. A Setting Up Stream pop-up appears and the audio starts playing. The iPad needs to be connected to the internet to translate the text.
3. Listening to Audio
As Natural Reader starts speaking, the text that’s being read out appears highlighted in blue on the screen. Tap on any paragraph to hear that portion. If you’ve missed what was said, you can quickly repeat the last sentence by tapping on the Previous icon in the bottom-right of the window. You can also skip forward through the chapter by tapping on the Forward icon, which skips forward by 15 percent of the chapter.
4. Adjust the Language
The settings icon (top right) lets you adjust the voice. Tap Settings and Language to choose from US English, UK English, French, German, Spanish, or Italian. This works with any book, no matter the language, although a foreign accent with an English-language title makes the voice somewhat difficult to follow. You can use the settings to adjust the text display using Font, Size and Paragraph. You can also purchase offline voices to use Natural Reader without an Internet connection.
5. Voice Settings
You can also choose from a range of male and female voices by tapping on settings and then Speaker. You can further fine-tune voices by tapping Speed, and choosing a value from -4 (slow) to 10 (fast). This changes the speed but not the pitch, so it’s possible to listen to books very quickly. When you’ve finished listening to a book, tap Library (top left) to return to the main library. Tapping on settings pauses the playback, so press the play/pause button to carry on.
6. Read from the Web
Natural Reader can read out web pages as well as digital books and files. Tap on Web in the sidebar of the main library window and tap on the URL field. Enter the address of a website and tap Go. Pick a web page and tap on Read Now in the top-right of the screen, then Play. You can use this to read books displayed as web pages, such as on Project Gutenberg, but it’s also great for reading online articles. Just go to any site and choose the article you want to hear — it’s as simple as that.
In celebration of its 25th year of typeface development, Adobe has released Source Han Sans, a new family of free, open source fonts that harmonizes East Asian and Latin font designs. More than three years in the making, this is one of Adobe’s most complex font projects, requiring cooperation among five different companies to accurately represent the more than 65,000 glyphs (characters) required for typesetting in Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) languages.
East Asian fonts, which serve approximately 1/4 of the world’s population, are historically based on Chinese ideograms. They’re also large, complex and expensive—with far fewer style choices available than western fonts. Because of the huge scope of this project, Adobe worked with Google and three other companies to spread the work and utilize specific regional expertise. The result is the largest open source font ever created.